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Beginning in the 1950's, Earth people started sending machines, animals, and finally humans, into space.

These countries / agencies included the following:

There is a list of Spacecraft that have visited other planets

Vehicles that generally orbit the Earth that are designed to explore the universe:


Space History USA

Robert H. Goddard World's first liquid-powered rocket March 16, 1926 Liquid oxygen and gasoline 41 feet climb Traveled 184 feet in 2.5 seconds Landed in a cabbage patch


Later (more advanced) rocket... (Meanwhile in

Germany)

Physicist Hermann Oberth "The Rocket into Interplanetary Space." 1923. (theories of space travel) The book inspired teenager, Wernher von Braun, ...assisted Oberth in liquid-fueled rocket experiments with 15 pounds of thrust. Von Braun considered Oberth to be his mentor and more like Tsiolkovsky (a theorist) than Goddard (a practical builder). V-2 Space Age Begins

(in Germany)

October 3, 1942 (3rd attempt) Weapon of war Height: 46 feet Fuel: Alcohol and LOX Velocity: 3500 mph Payload: 1,650 pounds Range: 200 to 250 miles September 1944, launched against England toward London but, too late to affect the outcome of the war. Scientists “Captured” January 1945 von Braun moved his team of 125

   scientists and engineers south to surrender to the Americans.

Hitler had ordered their execution to prevent their capture. On the same day that Berlin fell to the Soviets, May 2, 1945, von Braun and his rocket team crossed the American lines to safety. "Project Paperclip" instituted to find as many German rockets, scientists and engineers as possible. Enough parts found to build 100 V-2's. February of 1946, scientists moved to White Sands, New Mexico Rocket passes the Sound Barrier October 14, 1947, Muroc (today known as Edwards Air Force Base) With two broken ribs, a broom handle and shampoo on his windshield Chuck Yeager X-1 Glennis was his wife Mach 1.06 = 1125 kph

Research Moves, 1950 Rocket launches shift to the Cape Army's missile research moves from

  White Sands to a post just outside of Huntsville, Alabama 

Von Braun's team started on Redstone IRBM, Destined to launch America's

  first satellite, and the first two 
  U.S. manned flights 

First launched from the Cape on

  August 20, 1953.

Living things in Space September 20, 1951 — U.S. Air Force “First animal flight near space that ended with live occupants.” Nosecone on the Aerobee rocket carried a monkey named Yorick and 11 mice 45 miles (Space is said to began at 50 miles) (This was a second attempt.) Explorer 1 January 31, 1958 America's first satellite Launched on a version of the Redstone rocket (Jupiter C) Important scientific experiment of James A. Van Allen Discovered the radiation belts around the earth. NASA from NACA July 29, 1958 President Eisenhower signed H.R. 12575, making it the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568) He said: "The present National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) will provide the nucleus for NASA.” NACA had been around since 1915 The Pioneer Series First Launch: August 1958 First successful launch: March 1959 Pioneer 4 - Lunar Flyby Still in Solar Orbit


Pioneer 13 launched in August 1978 Able and Baker June 1959 Female rhesus monkey, Able Female squirrel monkey, Baker Aboard a Jupiter AM-18 rocket Suborbital – altitude 300 miles Speeds over 10,000 mph Weightless for nine minutes Recovered successfully Sensors that had been used to transmit vital signs data were removed in surgery. During the operation, Able died from the anesthetic. X-15 Research Rocket Plane Launched from wing of B-2 Scott Crossfield first powered

  flight on September 17, 1959

Mach 3.2 -- Joseph A. Walker on May 12, 1960 Past Mach 6 -- Major Robert M. White The final records -- 4,520 mph (mach 6.7) and 354,200 feet (67.08 miles) Several X-15 pilots got Astronaut status by flying more than 50 miles up. First time, July 17, 1962 – 300,000ft (56 mi) Begun well before Mercury and flew until Oct 24, 1968 in 199 missions X-15 Leeson Vacation - Summer 2005 Project Mercury Began on October 7, 1958 (One year and

  three days after the Soviets launched Sputnik 1)

6 manned flights from 1961 to 1963 Objectives: 1) orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth 2) investigate man's ability to function in space 3) recover both man and spacecraft safely. Three weeks after Alan Shepard's first suborbital flight, on May 5, 1961, and with only 15 minutes of U.S. space flight experience, President John F. Kennedy announced the goal of landing a man on the moon before the end of the decade. The Mercury 7 Alan Shepard Walter “Wally” Schirra John Glenn





Virgil “Gus” Gordon “Gordo” Deke Scott Grissom Cooper Slayton Carpenter Little Joe, Redstone, and Atlas

Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) the first manned space flight by the United States Freedom 7 May 5, 1961 Alan B. Shepard Also flew Apollo 14

Mercury-Redstone 4. MR-4 July 21,1961 Liberty Bell 7 Virgil I. “Guss” Grissom Dies in Apollo 1 fire

Mercury-Atlas 6 MA-6 First US manned orbital flight February 20, 1962 John H. Glenn, Jr. Friendship 7 Didn't fly again until aboard the Space Shuttle as “Senator Glenn” (1996)

MA-7, May 24,1962, Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter (Aurora 7) MA-8, October 3, 1962, Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., (Sigma 7) MA-9, May 15, 1963, Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper (Faith 7) The Ranger Series Lunar Research, impact cameras

  1. 3 Jan '62 – missed
  2. 4 Apr '62 – successful impact
  3. 5 Oct '62 – flyby (not intended)
  4. 7, #8, #9 – successes

3/9 Rangers 1 & 2 Failed launches. Probes never actually used Ranger 4 First US impact on the Moon Camera failed The Mariner Series 7/10 First (2) Aug 27, '62 Venus flyby Mars (4, 6, 7, 8, 9) flyby with landers Last (10) Nov 3, '73 Mercury and Venus flyby Mariner 2 First interplanetary spacecraft Reached Venus in 1962

Ranger 7 Launch: Jul 28 '64 Impact: Jul 31 Pictures 1000X the resolution of ground-based cameras Mariner 4 Launch – Nov 28 '64 Arrived for Mars flyby – Jul 14 '65

Project Gemini Began on X manned flights from 1965 to 196X Objectives: 1) long flight duration with 2 astronauts 2) rendezvous and docking 3) EVA


Gemini III March 23, 1965 Gus Grissom

   and John Young

3 orbits (5 hours)

   in “Molly Brown”

Buzz Aldrin Gemini 12, Apollo 11 Frank Borman (C) Gemini 7, Apollo 8, orbit the Moon Eugene Cernan Gemini 9, Apollo 10 moon orbit, (C) Apollo 17 Richard Gordon Gemini 11, Apollo 12 orbit the James Lovell Gemini 7, (C) Gemini 12, Apollo 8, and (C)Apollo 13 Thomas Stafford Gemini 6, (C) Gemini 9, (C) Apollo 10, (C) Apollo-Soyuz linkup flight The Surveyor Series Soft landings on the Moon 5/7 1 – Apr '66 7 – Jan '68 Lunar Orbiters 5/5 Aug '66 Aug '67

The Apollo Mission 'I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind or more important for the long range exploration of Space.' President John F. Kennedy, May 25, 1961


Russians had launched Sputnik in October 1957, and Yuri Gagarin had orbited on April 12, 1961. The U.S. Had JUST put Alan Shephard into space (May 5). Separate test craft (unmanned) SA-1 through SA-10 (1961- 1965) Little Joe II Tests (1964-1966) Apollo/Saturn test craft AS-201, Feb 26, 1966 AS-203, July 5, 1966 AS-202, Aug 25, 1966



Assemble


Launch


APOLLO 7 (AS-205) Crew: Wally Schirra, commander Donn Eisele, command module pilot Walt Cunningham, lunar module pilot Launched: Oct. 11, 1968

at Cape Canaveral

Landed:Oct. 21,1968 southeast

of Bermuda-Islands

in the Atlantic Ocean Mission: First Earth-orbit

test of the Apollo
command-service

module. No lunar module.

APOLLO 8 (AS-503)

Crew: Frank Borman, commander Jim Lovell, command module pilot Bill Anders, lunar module pilot Launched: December 21, 1968 at Kennedy Space Center Landed: December 27, 1968 Mission: First manned orbit of the moon. Command-service module only. APOLLO 9 Crew: James A. McDivitt, commander Dave Scott, command module pilot Rusty Schweickart, lunar module pilot Launched: March 3, 1969 from Kennedy Space Center Landed: March 13, 1969 east of the Bahamas Mission: First- Earth orbital mission designed to test docking procedures between the CSM and LM as well as test fly the Lunar Module in the relative safe confines of Earth orbit. APOLLO 10 Crew: Tom Stafford, commander John Young, command module pilot Gene Cernan, lunar module pilot Launched: May 18, 1969 from Kennedy Space Center Landed: May 26, 1969 Mission: First test of both command-service module and lunar module in orbit around the moon. Stafford and Cernan pilot LEM to within 50,000ft of the lunar surface. APOLLO 11 Crew: Neil Armstrong, commander Michael Collins, command module pilot Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot Launched: July 16, 1969 Landed: July 24, 1969 Mission: First lunar landing. Armstrong and Aldrin land in Sea of Tranquility and spend 2 hours and 31 minutes walking on the moon. Collins orbits overhead in the command module. APOLLO 12 Crew: Pete Conrad, commander Dick Gordon, CM pilot Alan Bean, LM pilot Launched: November 14, 1969 Landed: November 24, 1969 Mission: 2nd lunar landing. Conrad and Bean land in Ocean of Storms, collect rocks and retrieve parts from unmanned Surveyor spacecraft, which landed nearby in April 1967. APOLLO 13 Crew: Jim Lovell, commander Jack Swigert, command module pilot Fred Haise, lunar module pilot Launched: April 11, 1970 Landed:April 17, 1970 Mission: Third attempted lunar landing. At 55 hours, 54 minutes, and 53 seconds into the missions, a cryogenic tank explodes, causing a loss of breathable oxygen and power in the command-service module. Crew abandon ship and survive in the LEM until just a few hours before splashdown, when they return to the command module, jettison the LEM, and reenter the atmosphere. APOLLO 14 Crew: Alan Shepard, commander Stuart Roosa, command module pilot Ed Mitchell, lunar module pilot Launched: January 31, 1971 Landed: February 9, 1971 Mission: Third lunar landing. Shepard and Mitchell touch down in the Fra Mauro higlands, the intended destination of Apollo 13. APOLLO 15 Crew: Dave Scott, commander Al Worden, command module pilot Jim Irwin, lunar module pilot Launched: July 26, 1971 Splashdown: August 7, 1971 Mission: Fourth lunar landing. Scott and Irwin touch down at Hadley Rille in the Apennine Mountains. First test of the four-wheel-drive lunar roving vehicle. APOLLO 16 Crew: John Young, commander Ken Mattingly, command module pilot Charlie Duke, lunar module pilot Launched: April 16, 1972 Landed: April 27, 1972 Mission: Fifth lunar landing. Young and Duke landed in the Cayley-Descartes highlands, drive lunar roving vehicle 16.8 miles, and collect 213 pounds of lunar samples. APOLLO 17 Crew: Gene Cernan, commander Ron Evans, CM pilot Harrison Schmitt, LM pilot Launched: December 7, 1972 Landed:December 19, 1972 Mission: Sixth and last moon landing. Cernan and Schmitt touch down in the Taurus Mountains near the Littrow crater, collected 243 pounds of samples, and lift off from the lunar surface after seventy-five hours and three moonwalks. Pioneer 10 Launch: Mar '72 1st to pass through asteroid belt Jupiter flyby: Dec '73 Mission officially ended Mar '97 Has now left the solar system 7 billion miles from home Will reach Aldebaron (eye of Taurus) in 2my Farthest Earth artifact Skylab Launched unmanned May 14th, 1973 using a modified Saturn V. Three 3-man teams were launched using the smaller Saturn IB during 1973 and 1974 to dock with Skylab 1 for periods of up to 81 days. Had an airlock for EVA. “Apollo Telescope Mount” Largest piece of scientific hardware Set records for time-in-space (USA) 3 months, over 1200 orbits 1000's of experiments Mariner 10 Last in the series Launch Nov '73 First probe to use a gravity assist 10000 pics of Venus APOLLO-SOYUZ The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet Space Programs. The Apollo Spacecraft and Docking Module were launched on a Saturn IB rocket. Launched: July 15, 1975 Landed:July 24, 1975 SOYUZ CREW: Alexei Leonov - Soyuz 19 Commander Valery Kubasov- Soyuz 19 Engineer APOLLO CREW: Thomas Stafford - Apollo Commander Vance Brand - Apollo Command Module Pilot Deke Slayton - Apollo Docking Module Pilot Vikings I and II Mars Orbiter/lander Launched Aug and Sep '75 Tested soil and atmosphere Voyagers I & II Launched Aug and Sep '77 V1 flew by Jupiter and Saturn V2 also flew by Uranus and Neptune Pioneer 13 Arrived at Venus Dec '78 Deployed 4 atmospheric probes Descended by parachute Proved that lower atmosphere is clear STS “Space Shuttle” Magellan May '89 Carried aboard Atlantis Used radar to map surface of venus Galileo Launch: Oct '89 Orbiter/descent probe Flew by 2 asteroids on the way to Jupiter Planned for 2 year mission (worked for 8) Found salt water below the surface of Europa Probe entered Jupiter atmosphere Dec '95 Hubble Space Telescope Launch: Apr '90 Cassini and Huygens Launch: Oct '97 Saturn Orbiter with Titan lander


Soviet History

Yuri's Day April 12 1961 First Man in Space April 12, 1981 First Space Shuttle Flight Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (March 9, 1934 – March 27, 1968) Went where no man had gone before No man knew what would be encountered 0% Guarantee that he would return A Person Wife - Valentina 2 children


Comrad Kosmonaut A Career Graduated from A.F. Acad - 1958? Colonel - 1958 Selected as Cosmonaut (TsPK-1) - 1960 Vostok 1 “Pilot” - April 12, 1961 (108minutes) Chief Cosmonaut - May 1961-1963 Deputy Director TsPK - 1963-1968 Backup for Soyuz 1 (His good friend Vladimir Komarov died in that flight) Died training in a MiG-15, March 27, 1968 A Mission Vostok Blasted off as planned (9:07am Moscow time) 18,000mph 188 miles up One Complete Orbit Braking Rockets "At 10:55 Cosmonaut Gagarin safely returned to the sacred soil of our motherland." Yuri's Night The Cruise of the Vostok A Salute!!!


STS-1 Young and Crippen SpaceFacts

Sputnik 1957 Boosters Then you have a R7-A

Lunik 1, 2, 3 – 1959 and 1960 Sputnik 5 with Dogs 1960 Gagarin - Vostok 1 (1961) Vostok 1 (1961)

Note covering in place before launch Venus Flyby 1961

Valentina Tereshkova Vostok 6 (1963) Vostok 1969 (1961) Konstantine Tsiolkovsky 1964 Spacewalks Alexei Leonov (Voskhod 2)

1965





& 1967

Voshkod: 2 man crews, rendesvous, spacewalks The Soyuz

       Series

Soyuz 1 Tragedy Launched April 23, 1967 at 3:35am local time. Pilot Vladimir Komarov. First night launch of a crewed vehicle. It was to dock with Soyuz 2. It is believed that the Soyuz 2 never launched because of problems with Soyuz 1 in orbit. After just over a day in orbit, Soyuz 1 successfully re-entered the atmosphere. Komarov might still have landed safely, but the main parachutes tangled after deployment. Despite problems with Soyuz, Leonid Brezhnev wanted to have a spaceflight to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Communist revolution. The cosmonauts prepared a document listing 200 technical problems with Soyuz and gave it to people high in the communist party. A few weeks before launch, Komarov said, "If I don't make this flight, they'll send the backup pilot instead. That's (Yuri), and he'll die instead of me." Afterward, Gagarin, very upset, said, "...if I ever find out he (Brezhnev) knew about the situation and still let everything happen, then I know exactly what I'm going to do." Rumor: Gagarin did eventually catch up with Brezhnev and threw a drink in his face. Soyuz 4

A much improved Soyuz program, 18 months later Soyuz 4 & 5 (Jan 1969) The Nositel N-1 Rocket that would have sent Cosmonauts to the Moon Failures during major tests set the program back and allowed the political prize to be lost. N-1 Flight History The LK-lander

On several occasions during the 1970's, Soviets claimed they had not been part of a race for the Moon, but the N-1 tests and the Lunar Lander, tested in Earth orbit during the Kosmos 379, 398, and 434 missions of 1970 and 1971, suggest otherwise. So what were the Soviets doing during Apollo 11? Soyuz 9 (June 1970) Lunokhod 1 1971


Venera 8 1972 Space Stations Salyut 1 (April 1971) Soyuz 11 June 1971

Salyut 3 (1974) Apollo-Soyuz 1975 (Soyuz 16) Soyuz 1975 Salyut 1977 Soyuz 31 1978 Halley Project 1984 Saliout 7 as seen by STS-13 Tsiolkovsky & Sergei Korolev 1986 Mir 1987 Mir (joint-Serian mission) (1991) 1987 Phobos 1989 Buran Shuttle 1988 (Flew Once unmanned) Buran Buran Shuttle 1988 and 1991 (Flew Once 1988, unmanned) International Space Station (ISS) Zarya Module 1998

                                             as seen from STS88

International Space Station (ISS)

             after installing 2nd module (from STS88)

ISS ISS from STS106 (2000) ISS as STS97 Departs (2000) Launching the Zvezda Module (2000) Photon Rocket Launching Soyuz to Dock with ISS (2000 & 2004)

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