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I. An Introduction to Environmental ScienceEdit

A. Defining Environmental Science
  1. Adaptation
  2. Aquifer
  3. Arable/Nonarable land
  4. Atmosphere
  5. Biodiversity
  6. Biome
  7. Carbon Footprint
  8. Carcinogen
  9. Climate
  10. Conservation
  11. Consumer
  12. Controlled Study
  13. Deciduous
  14. Decomposer
  15. Demography
  16. Ecology
  17. Economics
  18. Ecosystem
  19. Ecotourism
  20. El Nino
  21. Emigration
  22. Emission
  23. Endemic
  24. Environmental Policy
  25. Erosion
  26. Estuary
  27. Ethics
  28. Evolution
  29. Fair trade
  30. Famine
  31. Food Chain
  32. Food Web
  33. Fossil Fuel
  34. Geographical Information System (GIS)
  35. Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
  36. Greenhouse Effect
  37. Habitat
  38. Hazardous waste
  39. Hydrocarbon
  40. Hypothesis
  41. Immigration
  42. Infant Mortality
  43. Infrastructure
  44. Invasive Species
  45. Kyoto Protocol
  46. Limiting Factor
  47. Lobbying
  48. Maximum Sustainable Yield
  49. Mutation
  50. Niche
  51. Old Growth Forest
  52. Ore
  53. Organic Agriculture
  54. Pathogen
  55. Peer Review
  56. Petrochemical
  57. pH
  58. Photovoltaic Cell
  59. Population
  60. Population Density
  61. Prescribed Burn
  62. Proxy Indicator



B. Scientific Methods
  1. Problem, usually stated as a question
  2. Research
  3. Hypothesis- an educated guess, that can be tested
  4. Experiment
  5. Theory- an explanation that has been tested, that may or may not agree with your hypothesis
- - - - - - - - - - -
Law-
C. Experimental Design
Constant-
Variable-
Independent variable-
Dependent variable-
Control Group-
Bias-

II. Economics and Environmental PolicyEdit

A. Economics-

1. Types
a. Centrally Planned economy
b. Free Market economy
c. Mixed economy
2. Supply and Demand graph
3. Cost-Benefit Analysis
4. Economics and the Environment - factors that influence our decisions
a. ethics
b. cost of being green
c. fear of government
d. long-term benefits
1) public relations (PR)
2) more resources in the future (sustainability)
3) being ahead of the curve
4) a better planet for our grandchildren
5) efficiency saves $$$
5. Sustainability-
A typical sequence of events that pushes businesses toward sustainability...
a. Someone puts a (non-market) value on what we do to the environment
b. They begin a movement to raise consumer awareness (involve environmentalists and small business)
c. A Corporation Responds - as consumers and investors demand...

B. Environmental Policy-

1. How does an idea become policy in the US at the Federal level?
a. Legislative Branch...
b. Executive Branch...
c. Judicial Branch...
2. State and local policy (ex: California Emissions laws)
3. History of U.S. Environmental Policy
see the class' time line

C. International Env. Policy and Approaches

1. Why bother?
2. Who?
a. The U.N.
b. The E.U.
c. W.T.O.
d. World Bank
3. How do they influence Env. Policy?
a. Tax breaks and Subsidies
b. Green Taxes
c. cap-and-trade
d. local incentives

III. Earth's Environmental SystemsEdit

XIII. Mineral Resources and MiningEdit

A. Minerals and Rocks
Mineral-
Ore-
Chrystalization...
Rock types ...
B. Mining
What is mined?
Mining Methods: strip, subsurface, Open pit, mountaintop removal, solution, placer, undersea Ore processing
C. Mining Impacts
Negative: Erosion, Debris, Pollution, Social
Regulations
Renewable or not?


XIV. Water ResourcesEdit

A. Earth: The Water Planet
Watershed -
Which states can send pollution to Louisiana?
Review aquifer and define water table p424
B. Uses of Fresh Water ... Agriculture, Industrial, Personal
Interesting ways we have altered the natural flow of surface water...
Mississippi/Atchafalaya, Irrigation, Dams/reservoirs, dried up rivers, lakes and even an inland SEA, bottling.
Solutions - desalination, we must reduce demand
C. Water Pollution
Nutrients, Toxic-chemicals, Sediments, Thermal, Biological
Prevention and cleanup
Ocean water pollution - Oil, Mercury, Nutrients
Water Treatment diagrams


XV. The AtmosphereEdit

A. Earth's Atmosphere
1. Composition ... pie chart.
2. Relative Humidity -
3. Air Pressure
4. Layers
a. Troposphere (avg 7 miles high) -
b. Stratosphere (7-31 miles up) -
c. Mesosphere (31-50 miles up) -
d. Thermosphere (50+ miles) -
5. Weather is the result of temperature and humidity changes
a. Conduction -
b. Convection -
c. Radiation -
6. Weather features and their causes...
fronts, streams, circulation, thunder storms,
B. Air Pollution (chart on p.463)
Smog -
Temperature inversion (caused the 1952 London Killer Smog) -
Acid Precipitation -
C. Controlling Air Pollution
The Clean Air Act (1963)
Ozone and the Montreal Protocol...


XVIII. Alternative Energy SourcesEdit

A. Biomass-
Biofuels-
ex: Ethanol (up to 10% mixed into gasoline)
and Biodiesel
Harnessed Photosynthesis
B. Geothermal-
Generating electricity
Local heating and cooling
C. Moving Water
Hydropower
(old school → Mills)
Tide generators
D. Solar
Solar heating
Photovoltaic Cells
E. Wind
Windmills
Wind turbines
F. Hydrogen
Fuel Cells
G. Nuclear
Fusion Reactors (not Fission that is currently used)
Radioactive batteries
H. Heat differential
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
Sterling Engine
Drinking bird

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